At present the main scientific direction of the department remains surgical hepatology — the most urgent and complex area of Surgical Gastroenterology (founders Directions — Professor IA Safin and MA Galeev). The steady increase in the number of patients with pathology of the liver and biliary tract caused by environmental status of the region, endemic viral hepatitis. Diffuse changes in the liver detected by ultrasound almost every second surveyed residents RB. Gallstone disease is in the structure of the organs of the abdominal cavity first place. In the year identified about 500 patients with focal lesions of the liver — parasitic and nonparasitic cysts, tumors of the liver, requiring surgery. Organizational structures designed to coordinate fundamental and practical aspects of the problem is the National Center for Surgical Treatment (Head — prof. Nartaylakov MA), based at the RCH im.G.G.Kuvatova.
Surgical Treatment Centers, and laser surgery to patients with liver disease being the highest modern standards, not only the population of the Republic of Bashkortostan, but also patients from many regions of the Russian Federation and CIS.
In addition, the Clinic has created a center of Transplantation, where he successfully performed a kidney transplant, developed questions for a liver transplant and pancreas.
A number of works devoted to problems of focal liver diseases and injuries. It has been experimentally and clinically justified the use of biological materials — allografts to fully hemo-and zhelchestaza with injuries and cysts of the liver (Nartaylakov MA), developed original methods of operations for both urgent and routine liver surgery (Mustafin AK ). We used mini-invasive and puncture technology, allowing both to reduce the duration of treatment of patients, and to achieve good functional and cosmetic results. Solve the problem of elimination of residual cavities after excision of echinococcus (Musharapov DR) and nonparasitic cysts. The department, together with Russian Eye and Plastic Surgery (Director — prof. Muldashev ER) is continuing research in the field of biological technologies in surgery — are drugs to stimulate regeneration and homeostasis, applicable for large and very large liver resections (Galimov II ). The clinic serves a full range of operations on the liver, including right-and left-sided extended hemihepatectomy in malignant and benign (Gritsaenko AI) tumors of the liver, the operation porto-caval shunt in portal hypertension (Kurbangulov IR). Being implemented radical surgery for tumors of the abdominal cavity in the presence of solitary metastases in the liver — one-stage resection of the affected organ and the liver. Pilot studies and rehearsed techniques of in vitro connect xeno-and artificial liver, intraportal administration fetal hepatocytes for the treatment of patients with hepatic insufficiency. Finished set of research devoted to stimulate liver regeneration in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis (Mingazov RS). This direction seems most promising, since a liver transplant — a radical method of treatment for this group of patients — is currently at the stage of preclinical testing. In a complex surgical treatment of intrahepatic methods included the introduction of allogeneic stimulators of regeneration, which allows you to \»switch\» local immune response to the resorption of collagen, increase lysosomal apparatus of hepatocytes and macrophages, increase fibroplasticheskie processes.
A special place in the center of Surgical Treatment to the problem of complications of gallstone disease (Nartaylakov MA, Galeev MA). To provide skilled care to patients with residual choledocholithiasis developed a proprietary algorithm of treatment, including retrograde cholangiopancreatography, papillosphincterotomy and shock-wave lithotripsy concretions in extrahepatic biliary tract. This allows, in most cases to avoid repeat surgeries. In cases of high cicatricial strictures of the common bile duct operations are performed Hepaticojejunostomy exchangeable transhepatic drainage, providing skeletal function (walk NV). A significant place is occupied by puncture under ultrasound — control, manipulation tactics of treatment of patients with liver abscess and abdominal cavity, with jaundice, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is performed and holangiostomiya.
Conduct comprehensive research on the laser stimulation of regeneration in surgical patients, is widely used laser operating technique (Sokolov VP). Application of endoscopic techniques has created new opportunities in the treatment of patients with pathology of the liver (Zaripov Sh.A.), extended range videolaparoscopic operations in adjacent areas — proctology, gynecology, and others of a high level diagnosis and treatment of patients with sequelae of injuries coccyx (Smakaev R.U .) and postoperative hypothyroidism (Fedorov SV).
Currently, improved operations on the esophagus, in particular, developed one-stage plastic esophageal gastric tube, formed from the greater curvature of the stomach from the abdomen, the cervical access (Bakirov AA).
Thus, the range of surgical problems solved by the department in recent years has improved significantly, the effectiveness of research is high enough. Only recently the clinic staff are protected by doctor (Sh. M. Safin, Z. Abdrashitov, AH Mustafin, VN Pavlov, SB Dautov, AA Bakirov, SV Fedorov ) and a large number of Ph.D. theses.
The educational process at the department put on a high level through the work of a professor of MA Galeev, A. J. Mustafina and AA Bakirova, associate RS Mingazova, VP Sokolov and R. W. Smakaeva, assistants SV Fedorov, and GN Jenghiz. In recent years, joined the team of young assistants — AI Gritsaenko, I. Galimov, DR Musharapov.
Each new generation of doctors in their own perception and continues the tradition of mentors, studying and being guided by their experience, improving medical science. But there is an immutable principle of our business is not dependent neither the time nor the triumphant onslaught of technological advances: all the efforts and research staff of the department have always been aimed at achieving a noble goal — to find new, more effective ways to help people. Under development at the Department and introduced in clinical practice of new diagnostic methods and modern technologies allow to significantly improve the results of treatment of many diseases, to help those patients that were previously considered hopeless.
Most surgeons currently working in different parts of the Republic of Bashkortostan, was trained at the Department of General Surgery. Some of them are successfully carrying out practical activities in other subjects of the Russian Federation. Many of them are heads of the specialized surgical centers, leading specialists of the Ministry of Health of Belarus, are engaged in activism, in its efforts to improve the quality of medical care.
To date, the Department of General Surgery BSMU actively working on the practical implementation of their achievements in leading clinics of the republic, continues to medical advice, research and teaching work. Employees of the department, possessing modern scientific knowledge, experience and great creative potential, continue to actively seek solutions to current problems of modern medicine.